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Modern and Historic Treaties (Indigenous Peoples)

Numbered Treaties

  • This publication by Centennial College discusses each of the eleven Numbered Treaties in detail, while also giving background to the creation of the Numbered Treaties, and details of the lengthy negotiations that took place to finalize the treaties.

Douglas Treaties (1850)

  • This is the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia's document on the 1850 Douglas Treaties, which are a set of treaties named after the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) Chief Factor James Douglas.
  • The Douglas Treaties (or sometimes referred to as the Fort Victoria Treaties or Vancouver Island Treaties) are comprised of 14 treaties, occurring between 1850–1854, that were made with the First Nations peoples living on Vancouver Island for land in exchange for goods and l

Canada's History: Treaties and the Treaty Relationship

  • This is the Department of Canadian Heritage's report on the history of treaties and the treaty-making relationship between the First Nations and the Crown, which still have relevance today.
  • With contributions from the Treaty Commissioner and various other members of Canada's History Society, this report highlights the importance of treaties in Canada and how they have shaped the lives of First Nations peoples and their relationship with the Crown for centuries.

Peace and Friendship Treaties

  • This document outlines the details of the Peace and Friendship Treaties, which took place throughout the 1700's and were signed with the Mi'kmaq, Maliseet and Passamaquoddy (who were residents of what is now called the Maritimes and Gaspé) groups to encourage a more civil relationship between the British and the First Nations.
  • This document includes details of the various types of Peace and Friendship Treaties, how they differ from other treaties in Canada, how th

Treaty Texts

  • This is a collections of transcripts of the historical treaties between the Crown and Indigenous peoples of Canada beginning mid 1700's–early 1900's.
  • This collection includes: Treaties of Peace and Neutrality, Peace and Friendship Treaties, Upper Canada Land Surrenders, Douglas Treaties, Robinson Treaties, the Numbered Treaties, and the Williams Treaties. 

The Numbered Treaties (1871-1921)

  • During the time when the Dominion of Canada was forming and expanding a series of treaties, called the Numbered Treaties, were made between the Crown and First Nations between from 1871–1921 and covered land between the Lake of the Woods, the Rocky Mountains, and the Beaufort Sea. 
  • The treaties were made to give land to the Crown in exchange for payments, hunting/fishing tools, and other valuables.