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National Security and Defence (Canada-U.S. Relations)

Non-Proliferation, Arms Control, and Disarmament

  • This publication highlights Canada's efforts to engage in non-proliferation agreements, arms control, and disarmament efforts through primarily international agreements.
  • In 2002, Canada and the then G8 nations launched the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction to prevent terrorists and those that harbor them from acquiring weapons and materials of mass destruction and their mean

Canada-US Horizontal Law Enforcement Initiatives

  • The Integrated Border Enforcement Team (IBET) program is a multi-faceted law enforcement initiative comprised of American and Canadian partners spanning along 15 regions of the shared border.
  • IBET is an example of bi-national collaborative efforts between the Canadian and United States governments' core agencies, which include the United States Customs and Border Protection, the US Coast Guard, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the Canada Border Services Agency

The Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS)

  • The Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) was yet another program advised upon by the Permanent Joint Board on Defence (PJBD) and its main function as an aircraft is to provide surveillance through monitoring, detecting, and tracking other aircraft, missiles, or ground targets.
  • AWACS is also used to perform command and control of the battlespace in the air by organizing fighter and attack aircraft strikes.

Global Pledge on Media Freedom

  • The Media Freedom Coalition is a cross-regional coalition made up of 52 member states (who have all signed the Media Freedom Pledge at the first conference in 2019) with Canada and the United States being two of them.
  • The purpose of this coalition is to advocate for media freedom at home and abroad by advocating for journalist and media worker safety and hold people accountable to risk or infringements upon their safety.

Operation NEON

  • Operation NEON is Canada's contribution to a multinational effort that helps/supports the United Nations Security Council's sanctions imposed on North Korea.
  • The Canadian Armed Forces' ships and aircrafts work with the US military to support these sanctions against North Korea.
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  • The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) are active through Eastern and Central Europe as it helps lead North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) multinational battle group in Latvia.
  • Canada began assisting NATO in this operation in 2014 and remained active in Poland helping Ukrainian refugees flee violence.

The NORAD Agreement

  • Canada and the United States agreed to create the "North American Air Defense Command" (NORAD) headquarters in Colorado Springs in September 1957 as a means of centralizing control of continental air defenses against Soviet bomber threats.
  • This archived agreement was made on May 12, 1958, between Canada and the US (Prime Minister John Diefenbaker and President Dwight Eisenhower) at the Canadian Embassy in Washington D.C..

NORAD Modernization

  • In August 2021, the Minister of National Defence of Canada and the Secretary of Defense of the United States approved a joint statement to help guide Canada and the United States in the enhancement process of NORAD to help continue executing the original mission/goals while also evolving to face new and emerging threats.


  • NEXUS is a joint trusted traveler and expedited border control program by Canada's Border Services Agency and the US Customs and Border Protection Agency and is designed for pre-approved and low-risk travelers.
  • This program has over 1.8 million members and encourages secure and lawful travelling between the countries and allows members to avoid long line-ups at the airport and a simpler entry process through land border crossing.

Operation IMPACT

  • Operation Inherent Resolve is the name given by the US military for the international intervention against ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant), which includes campaigns in Iraq and Syria and a closely-related campaign in Libya.
  • Canada contributes to these efforts through Operation IMPACT, which is the Canadian whole-of-government approach to the Middle East.
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