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Northern/Arctic Affairs (Canada-U.S. Relations)

The Arctic Council

  • This is the official page for the Arctic Council, which is a leading intergovernmental forum for Arctic States, Arctic Indigenous peoples, and other Arctic citizens to cooperate, coordinate, and interact on relevant issues with a special focus on sustainable development and environmental protection.

International Circumpolar Surveillance

  • The International Circumpolar Surveillance (ICS) is a region-wide disease surveillance system led by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was developed by the United States along with the other Arctic States including Canada.
  • ICS was established in 1999 and began by sharing data on only a select few diseases but has expanded to include several new countries, expanded the types of pathogens targeted, and has established new programs.

Canada and the Arctic Council

  • The Arctic Council was established on September 19, 1996 in Ottawa, Ontario and includes the eight arctic countries: Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the United States.
  • The purpose of this council is to enhance cooperation, coordination, and interaction among the Arctic states to solve issues in the Arctic with involvement from Arctic Indigenous peoples and other residents.

Arctic Cooperation Agreement (1988)

  • The 1988 Arctic Cooperation Agreement was an agreement made by the Government of Canada and the Government of the United States under the leadership of President Ronald Reagan and Prime Minister Brian Mulroney that laid the basis for Canada-US cooperation in Arctic Waters, specifically in the Northwest Passage.
  • This agreement helped provide practical mechanisms for the two countries to cooperate, despite unresolved legal differences regarding the status of passage