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Energy and Natural Resources (Canada-U.S. Relations)


  • This report, prepared by the Canadian Electricity Association (CEA), discusses the North American Grid and how Canada, the US, and Mexico are deeply impacted by electricity infrastructure changes over the last several years and each country needs to maintain reliable, affordable, and sustainable electricity systems.
  • This report also highlights the CEA's dedication to promoting cooperation in the face of climate change for a more sustainable energy future in North America, which can only be achieved through innovative clean technology, energy efficiency, and renewable integrat

Canada-US Energy Cooperation

  • As part of the several commitments made in the Roadmap for a Renewed US-Canada Partnership, Canada's Minister of Natural Resources and the United States' Secretary of Energy signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on energy cooperation in June 2021.
  • The MOU helps enhance cooperation on sustainable and equitable energy transitions, clean energy innovation, connectivity and low-carbon transportation.

North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC)

  • Canada and the United States partner through the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) to ensure safety, security (physical and cyber), and reliability of the shared electricity grid.
  • The NERC formally began in 2006 and is a not-for-profit international regulatory authority that oversees the interconnected power systems of Canada and the United States, along with a portion of the Baja California Mexican State.

Nuclear Safety Commission

  • The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's (CNSC) mandate is to help implement Canada's and the international community's commitments to the safe and peaceful use of nuclear materials/technology.
  • The following resource identifies the types of international instruments used to conduct nuclear agreements along with the types of agreements Canada has made with other countries.
  • The U

Keystone XL Pipeline

  • The Keystone XL pipeline was a highly disputed pipeline project that was meant to carry oil from the Canadian province of Alberta to the American state of Nebraska where it would join the existing Keystone Pipeline network.
  • In March 2010, the Canadian National Energy Board (NEB) approved the pipeline, which was owned by Trans Canada Corp., but ever since, the pipeline project became a contentious subject between the Canada-US political and economic relationship.

Uranium Exports to the U.S.

  • Canada is one of the largest producers of uranium in the world, with the majority being exported outside of Canada.
  • Canada exports the majority of its uranium to the United States, and Canada imports 1/4 of the uranium needs to the U.S., which fuels American nuclear power plants.
  • Canada has been a reliable partner in uranium exports for over 75 years.

Joint Action Plan on Critical Minerals Collaboration

  • In January 2020,  Canada and the United States announced the finalization of their Canada-US Joint Action Plan on Critical Minerals Collaboration.
  • This announcement comes from the promise made by Prime Minister Trudeau and President Trump made back in 2019 and helps to advance both countries mutual interest in securing supply chain for critical minerals needed for manufacturing sectors like communication technology, aerospace and defence, and clean technology.

Energy Resource Governance Initiative

  • Canada is a founding partner of the US-led Energy Resource Governance Initiative (ERGI), which is a multinational approach to best practices for handling the key energy minerals that are fundamental in the forthcoming global energy transformation.
  • Since Canada and the United States are both interested in improving global supply chains for critical minerals, they joined this initiative in 2019.

Northern Pipeline Act

  • Based on the vast oil reserves discovered in Alaska and the Canadian Arctic in the late 1960s and early 1970s, Canada and the US inquired into the environmental/socio-economic impacts of a potential pipeline project that would transport oil in the north to southern markets.
  • In 1977, an inquiry led by Kenneth Lysyk approved the pipeline on the condition of having regulatory oversight and mitigative measures.

Canada Electric Grid Security and Resilience Strategy

  • Canada and the United States have one of the most integrated electric grids in the world with 37 major transmission lines that connect the two countries that helps offer reliable, secure, and affordable electricity on citizens residing in both countries.
  • The Joint United States-Canada Electric Grid Security and Resilience Strategy is a collaboration between the Government of the United States and the Government of Canada to strengthen the security and resiliency o